Poliomyelitis acute epidemic paralysis, Heine's disease – Medina (POLIOMYELITIS) etiology. The causative agent is a filterable virus. There are three immunologic types of virus: Brunnhilde, Leon, and Lansing, also referred to numbers (I, II, III). The causative agent of poliomyelitis is stable in the environment. At a temperature of 0-4 it is viable in faeces for several months.
Of laboratory animals are susceptible to polio monkeys. The virus can grown in tissue culture. Epidemiology. The source of infection is a sick man, convalescents and healthy virus carriers. Typhoid Mary is especially great during the acute phase of illness. During the period of convalescence shedding lasts 14-40 days and sometimes longer (up to 5 months). In the contents of the nasopharynx revealed impermanent, in the early days of the disease.
(An important role in the spread of polio are the person carrying the disease mild or asymptomatic form. Poliomyelitis is an intestinal infection: a role in its distribution are the flies. Obviously, matters and airborne route of infection. The incidence rises in July – October and decreases in winter and spring months. Trauma, intestinal diseases, and especially tonsillectomy contribute to the development of the disease. Polio mainly affects children under 3 years old, to a lesser extent – the older age groups. Atrium are the pharyngeal lymphatic ring and the intestinal tract, where the primary replication of the virus. Thanks to vaccinations achieved dramatic reduction in the number of polio cases. Clinic. The incubation period lasts on average 5-14 days (may decrease to 1-2 and extension to 50 days). The disease is characterized by acute inflammation of the gray matter of anterior horns of the spinal cord, mainly in the cervical and lumbar bulges, rarely involved in the process cells posterior horns of the brain stem, subcortical nuclei. Distinguish aparalitichesky and paralytic poliomyelitis. The disease usually begins acutely. Temperature increases up to 38,5-40 .