Collection of collections – it's pretty old hobby of people that began with our ancient ancestors. And if the gathering, accumulation in ancient times allowed humanity to survive, in our time is collecting one of the most popular hobbies, undertaken exclusively 'for the soul. " You can collect a variety of things – stamps, paper money, matchbox labels, and so forth. But collecting coins or numismatics, is not only fad that 'warms the soul', but also an excellent way of investing money. Concurrently numismatics – it is also the science that studies the history of circulation of coins and their manufacture. The basis of this concept is The Greek word 'nomizma', which means – the coin. The term became widespread in the Middle Ages, but the history of numismatics began in ancient Rome.
In the IV century, the Italian poet Petrarch, fascinated by literature and art, gathered a collection of ancient coins of various nations. With the filing of Petrarch, the Renaissance came the works, which explains the image on coins, inscriptions on them. In the 18 century was the first attempt to somehow organize material, and in the 19 th century appeared the very first catalog of coins, distribute them to individual countries and historical periods. The history of Russian coinage begins with the X century. Prior to that, are all available in circulation money in the Russian state were foreign-born – Byzantine, Tartar, Arab, Persian.
The first coins were struck in Russia with the aim of promoting our state as the strongest and most powerful Christian powers of the time, however, immediately found its functional purpose, becoming a very popular means of monetary circulation in the country. Minting of coins, after the so-called 'free coinage period' in 1380 Dmitry Donskoy resumed immediately after the victory over the Tartars. In those days, every prince, whether or Moscow Nizhny Novgorod, considered it his duty to issue a nominal coin – not for want of money circulation, but as a sample of his prestige and power. Ivan III, the first to try to unify all the coins that were in circulation in Russia. By the end of his reign in the state have only two kinds of coins. After quite an established production of silver imperial coins to rebuild coinage in the Soviet Union, devastated by civil war, it was extremely difficult. However, in 1923 the State Bank rapped the first coins of the USSR – gold, silver and copper. Gold ducat was their first coins entered circulation in the Soviet republic. Its front side contains an image of the peasant – the sower, and coat – the emblem of the RSFSR, and the slogan: 'Workers of all countries, unite! '. Victory in the Great World War II gave rise to another tradition in our country – commemorative coins. Commemorative coins are minted in Russia and the Soviet Union from time to time, in honor of a significant event. Since 1965, the country regularly issued commemorative coins – to commemorate the Olympic Games in Moscow in honor of the Great Victory. Since that time, extended the tradition of minting coins dedicated to the famous personalities who have contributed to the activities of our country – in honor of Yuri Gagarin, Pushkin, Mendeleyev, and many other famous people. Numismatics coincidence is one of the most popular passions of mankind, because collecting coins – is an exciting and interesting passion, which makes it possible to plunge into the identity of the state and in the historical era to which they belong.